Which States Have the Most Punitive School Discipline?

It's hard enough being a kid these days, but when it comes to punitive school discipline, some states make it way harder. Based on the 2015-16 data from the U.S. Department of Education, the states in the brightest color red in the map below are those with the highest combined rates of school suspensions, expulsions, use of restraint and seclusion, paddling, arrests at school, and referral to the police. The lightest states are those that are least punitive. Our methodology: we gave the heaviest weighting to hands-on procedures (restraint, seclusion, paddling), arrests and school, referrals to police, and expulsion; we gave a slightly lower weighting to out-of-school suspension, and the lowest weighting to in-school-suspension. We calculated a "Punitive Index" for each state based on the weighted total of punitive interventions relative to the estimated population of children under the age of 18 in the state.

Punitive Index

Mississippi continues to have the ignominious distinction of being far and away the most punitive state in the US, followed by South Carolina, Arkansas, Alabama, and Louisiana. (Scroll over each state to see raw numbers per year for each of the above interventions.) And there is an association between treating kids badly and rates of incarceration of adults. Click here to see incarceration rates by state.

Kudos to Utah for being (again) the least punitive state, followed by North Dakota, Idaho, Hawaii, and California. (Click here for rankings by state.) But every state has work to do. Most of these punitive interventions are used in schools in every state, and none of these interventions solve the problems that are causing concerning behavior in our students.

By the way, there is good reason to believe that the data reported by the U.S. Department of Education represent underestimates. For example, a report from Disability Rights/Wisconsin, Wisconsin Family Ties, and Wisconsin Facets documented over 20,000 restraints and seclusions in Wisconsin during the 2013-14 school year, while the US Department of Education reported just over 3,800 for the same school year. In Maine, there is good reason to believe that the rate of restraint and seclusion is 10 times more than what's been reported by the US Department of Education. And here's a news story reporting that hundreds of restraints went unreported by schools in Fairfax, Virginia. 

And if you're thinking it's just the kids with social, emotional, and behavioral challenges who are suffering, think again: all kids are affected adversely when ineffective school discipline is deployed, when they see classmates being treated in an inhumane way, and when they don't feel safe at school.

Finally, if all of this has you feeling the urge to get more involved, sign up to become an Advocator. And be sure to check out all the free resources on reducing restraint and secluion at truecrisisprevention.org.